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STRATEGI GENERATIF

Definisi
Proses menjana idea secara kritis dan kreatif melalui pengintegrasian idea baru dengan pengetahuan dan pengalaman sedia ada (schemata).
Pelajar berhadapan dengan proses pembelajaran yang menjurus ke arah pemikiran yang menggunakan metafora dan analogi. Pemikiran pelajar diasuh untuk menyelesaikan sesuatu masalah secara kritis dan kreatif serta dapat melahirkan seorang individu yang bersifat intuitif dan celik akal dalam melihat sesuatu situasi.
Generative learning is a theory that involves the active integration of new ideas with the learner's existing schemata. Cognitive research has shown that learners immersed in generative learning environments generate subproblems, subgoals, and strategies for achieving a larger task.
Generative learning strategies can be broken down into four elements: 1) recall, 2) integration, 3) organization, and 4) elaboration. Strategies from these four areas can be used alone or in conjunction with one another to achieve a learning goal.
• Recall involves the learner pulling information from long term memory. The goal of recall is to learn fact-based information. Techniques include repetition, rehearsal/practice, review, and mnemonics.
• Integration involves the learner to integrating new knowledge with prior knowledge. The goal of integration is transform information into a more easily remembered form. Integration methods include:
􀂾 paraphrasing (outline in a narrative format)
􀂾 summarizing (retelling the content in order to interpret or explain concisely)
􀂾 issue trees
􀂾 generate questions or examples
􀂾 generate analogies and metaphors
• Organization involves the learner relating prior knowledge to new ideas and concepts in meaningful ways. Techniques include analysis of key ideas, outlining, categorization, clustering/listing, and concept maps.
• Elaboration involves the connection of new material to information or ideas already in the learner's mind. The goal of elaboration is to add ideas to new information (Bloom's synthesis of new information). Elaboration methods include generation of
mental images or physical diagrams, free writing, sentence elaboration, visual displays, slides, and bulletin boards.
In a 1991 Elementary School Journal article, Merlin Wittrock from UCLA concluded that successful teaching of the generative processes attends to four factors:
Preconceptions, knowledge, and student perceptions
• To increase academic achievement it is important to change students’ perception of their roles in learning from one of recording and memorizing information to one of generating understanding by relating concepts to their experiences and to their knowledge base.
Motivation
• Student-perceived control increases grades and achievement test scores
Attention
• Although paying close attention to reading is difficult for some students, attention is particularly important in academic tasks and correlates with achievement more highly than does time on task.
Generation
• To comprehend instruction, students invent new models and explanations or use or revise old models and explanations in order to organize new information into coherent wholes that make sense to them and are coherent with their experience and knowledge. Research supports the conclusion that generative treatments increase retention and comprehension.

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