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STRATEGI MEDIATIF

Definisi
Proses mengaplikasikan pengetahuan sedia ada untuk menyelesaikan masalah, membuat keputusan, mengenal pasti andaian, membuat inferens dan hipotesis.
Strategi mediatif memberi pelajar peluang untuk menentukan secara sistematik konsep dengan mengklasifikasi dan membuat kategori. Pembelajaran yang berlaku adalah satu proses aktif di mana pelajar membina idea dan konsep berlandaskan pengetahuan lepas dan sekarang. Pelajar membuat kategori ciri utama dan membina konsep mengikut kefahaman mereka.
Mediative strategies a step further towards students’ control, so that the emphasis is on students’ creativity and inventions, utilizing imagination and reflection as well as other cognitive functions. Students are encouraged to use lateral thinking to step outside of their usual frameworks to look at issues in novel ways.
Peranan Guru
􀂾 Sebagai pengantara (mediator) di antara pemikiran pelajar dan konsep serta pengetahuan yang dihendak disampaikan – tidak hanya sebagai penyampai ilmu semata-mata:
“… the teacher conducts dialogue to elicits from students their own understanding and application of material and then intervenes as needed for better understanding.”
􀂾 Membantu pelajar belajar untuk menilai pelbagai sudut pandangan isu-isu kontroversial, memahami dan menghormati pandangan atau pendapat pihak lain, serta menggunakan pelbagai alternatif proses penyelesaian masalah.
“… Although the teacher might share views and provide useful information and reasoning in the course of the dialogue, the teachers refrains from making direct value judgments about the students' ideas but rather allows them to be tempered by the dialogue itself.”
Contoh Aktiviti Pengajaran dan Pembelajaran Bercirikan Mediatif
• Penyimpanan Jurnal Reflektif
Keeping reflective journals on uses of strategies and other topics relevant to the student's academic life and success;
• Mengatursusun Panduan Belajar Persendirian
Having students compose personalized study guides for particular courses;
• Amalan Kaedah Inkuiri
Employing inquiry approaches to discovering strategies and systems for accomplishing learning goals, such as having student interview faculty concerning their expectations in their courses, and presenting a synthesis of these to the class;
• Penggunaan Pelbagai Media
Encouraging students to use multiple media to explore their learning issues, such as combinations of significant music, drawing, and written text.
• Sesi Dialog
Holding dialogues in which students share their approaches to problematic situations and pool strategies for dealing with conflict situations;
• Sesi Penyelesaian Masalah
Having students verbalize their problem-solving processes to each other or to the teacher and discuss strengths and weaknesses in how they are approaching problems;
• Baca-Banding-Bincang
Having students read, compare, and discuss two or more texts with different points of view or information and decide on criteria by which they evaluate arguments;
• Sesi Perbualan Berpandu
Guiding conversations on goals and time management in which students themselves come up with priorities by which they can use their time resources to achieve desired outcomes.
• Perbengkelan
Utilizing process writing and workshop approaches that emphasize peer response and editing, and revision over multiple drafts under teacher guidance.
STRATEGI MEDIATIF
Kaedah
Open-Ended Discussion
Concept Attainment
Concept Formation
Inkuiri
PELAJAR
PENYOALAN
Peranan
• Merangsang dan menimbul sikap ingin tahu
• Tidak memindahkan konsep secara terus(direktif)
• Tidak membuat judgement tentang idea pelajar
GURU
(KemahiranPemudahcaraan)
Tugasan Kognitif
(Kem. Berfikir)
• Menghurai fenomena
• Mencari pola
• Menerang sebab
• Membukti
• Hipotesis
• Penaakulan induktif, deduktif
Peranan
(Kem. Belajar)
• Mengumpul maklumat
• Memproses
• Menilai idea sendiri
• Membuat kesimpulan sendiri mengenai konsep baru.
KAEDAH CONCEPT ATTAINMENT
Memperkenalkan Konsep
• Guru menunjukkan contoh-contoh tanpa label
• Pelajar meminta contoh atau cuba memberi contoh positif
• Guru meletakkan contoh dalam senarai.
Menguji Capaian Konsep
• Pelajar menjana dan menguji hipotesis
• Pelajar mengenal pasti contoh-contoh lain.
• Pelajar menjana contoh
• Guru membantu mengesahkan hipotesis, nama konsep, menyatakan semula definisi berdasarkan ciri.
Menganalisis Strategi Berfikir
• Pelajar menghuraikan pemikirannya
• Pelajar berbincang peranan hipotesis dan ciri-ciri
• Pelajar berbincang tentang jenis dan bilangan hipotesis
Kambing
Buaya
Hipotesis 2
Haiwan hidup di darat?.
Kelawar
Ikan paus
Ular
Hipotesis 3
Berdarah panas
Perkenalkan Konsep & Ciri
Mamalia
Hipotesis 1
Binatang berkaki empat?
Ayam
Lipan
Harimau
Gajah
Bukan Contoh
Contoh
Kaedah Inkuiri
Proses menjawab soalan dan menyelesaikan masalah berdasarkan FAKTA dan PEMERHATIAN.
Kaedah pengajaran yang dirangka untuk melatih dan membimbing pelajar cara untuk mengkaji masalah dan soalan dengan berpandukan fakta.
5 langkah:
1. Mengenal pasti masalah atau persoalan
􀂾 Pastikan masalah atau persoalan tersebut jelas
􀂾 Permasalahan tersebut perlu ditulis di papan hitam / OHP / LCD
􀂾 Pastikan pelajar memahami bahasa dan konsep yang terkandung
2. Membina hipotesis
*Hipotesis: jawapan tentatif kepada sesuatu persoalan atau penyelesaian kepada sesuatu masalah yang boleh disahkan melalui data.
􀂾 Bagi pelajar sekolah rendah, binaan hipotesis boleh dimulakan dengan “hunch” or “educated guess.”
3. Mengumpul data
The hypotheses are used to guide the data-gathering process. Data are gathered in some hands-on method; usually an exploration by the students (this can be teacher guided or student designed). To develop data-gathering skills the students should display their results (diagrams, tables, charts, graphs, etc.), and discuss the techniques that were used.
4. Menganalisis Data
assess their hypotheses on the basis of the data
5. Membina generalisasi (rumusan)
Closure occurs in an inquiry lesson when students tentatively generalize—if possible—about the results on the basis of the data. If results are inconsistent, generalizing will need to be tentative and may lead to new inquiry problems

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